Annotated Bibliography

This annotated bibliography evidences a sample of works; scholarly, theoretical, conceptual and professional  that are related to the Inquiry terms and keywords of my ILA. The twelve references listed have come from databases that include; A+ education, Proquest Education, Google Scholar and  Google. Given that my topic is quite specific ( Indigenous or Aboriginal Art ) for an ISP including  a search of potential inquiry models, these results are based instead on broader terms of visual art  and /or Art education at upper primary and lower secondary level.

In summary my findings were broad in content, but for the most part were considered relevant to my search intentions.

Booth, E. (2013). A Recipe for Artful Schooling. Educational Leadership, 70(5), 22-27.

As an art teacher Booth’s journal article was immediately relatable. The opening line; “It drives art educators crazy. We have a deep knowledge about creativity, but we’re peripheral to the central education conversation about it…” Booth challenges the perception of the arts as being a sideline subject. He suggests three essential elements;1)  Intrinsic motivation: by encouraging students to make things they care about, that reveal something of themselves, that may then lead to more complex projects incorporating other subject discipline;.2) The skill of creativity through brainstorming, divergent thinking and metaphoric thinking, flexible thinking, multi sensory engagement, and empathy; 3) Inquiry based learning. Arts education involves highly productive, problem solving processes. Booth outlines a host art related skills that are developed through the inquiry process. This article is exactly what I had been searching for. As an educator investigating the notion of inquiry in an art classroom, Booth has provided me with a toolbox!

Costantino,T. E.(2002) Problem-Based Learning: A Concrete Approach to Teaching Aesthetics Studies in Art Education Vol. 43, No. 3 (Spring, 2002), pp. 219-231 Published by: National Art Education Association Article Stable URL:

Constantino provides strategies for teaching aesthetics using problem based learning (PBL). She states that PBL is both a curricular organizer and instructional method that develops higher order thinking in students. This is an area that my students find difficult in many instances. The situations created by the author allows students to investigate “ill-defined” problems drawn from real life situations. the article begins with an example from an American upper elementary art lesson, followed by an introduction to PBL including its history and theoretical foundations. Some of the challenges of implementing  a PBL model is discussed. To conclude,  Constantino illustrates how PBL can be applied to teaching aesthetics as an explicit part of an art curriculum. I find the PBL model to have potential for use in my own art room, and therefore find this document to be of interest as an a variant model.

Daniel, V. A. H., Stuhr, P. L., & Ballengee-Morris, C. (2006). Suggestions for integrating the arts into curriculum. Art Education, 59(1), 6-11. http:/

This American based article has been written by 3 art faculty members in an effort to transform 5 Ohio public schools by integrating the arts into the curriculum. This of course astounds me that they have been a 5 year crusade to achieve something that Australian schools have by necessity. The authors of this professionally based document, outline the interrelationships between an integrated curriculum components of : unit foundations, the role of inquiry based instruction, and assessment. The value of ‘Big Ideas’, ‘Key Concepts’ and ‘Essential Questions’ are highlighted as features of an inquiry model and are individually discussed using an inquiry about ‘community’ to illustrate the process. This article is helpful t my own inquiries as it provides an exemplar for the inquiry process, whilst also exemplifying its virtues within an art curriculum.

Hamblen, K. A (1984). “” Don’t You Think Some Brighter Colors Would Improve Your Painting?”: Or, Constructing Questions for Art Dialogues”. Art education (Reston) , 37 (1), p. 12.

 Hamblen examines effective questioning techniques for achieving educational goals, critical thinking and student involvement in the art classroom. Questions that are properly framed encourage student engagement and self  initiated learning. Hamblen proposes that by following tested questioning methodologies, learning is shifted in the room t encompass a wider capacity of learner. This article is a helpful professional review of classroom techniques and offers 17 practical suggestions for improving questioning methods. Also  8 suggestions for appropriately responding to student questions. This article, is another gem as I have been trying to find information of questioning for my own year 8  students whose inquiries have been very primary leveled.

Hathaway, N. (2008). 10 TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES in a “choice-based” art program. Arts and Activities, 144(1),36-37,53. Retrieved from

In a constructivist approach to learning, Hathaway imagines the ideal art room as a “studio” space where students are “artists in residence”. Students are responsible for initiating their own ‘art problems’ and initiating their own projects. This sounds already very much like my own senior class. Which makes me think that many of us already practice Inquiry learning in an art space without acknowledging it as a model for learning. In a choice-based classroom, students are engaged in the real work of artists, from the inception of the idea to the display of finished work. Hathaway presents 10  strategies for this  learning environment. 1) teacher delivered whole group mini lesson 2) Teacher delivered small group lesson 3) Teacher delivered  individual lesson 4) Informal peer to peer teaching 5) Student “experts” teaching 6) Classroom as ‘silent lesson plan/teacher’ 7) Guest experts 8) Field trips  9) Individual inquiry 10) Classroom discussion and reflection. Having read this professional based document I am really inspired , as I can see how each of these would fit easily into my own art space.  Art based inquiry just makes so much sense!

Heid, K. (2008). Creativity and imagination: Tools for teaching artistic inquiry. Art Education, 61(4), 40-46. Retrieved from

Heid’s theoretical analysis of the role of a cycle of visual Inquiry in the arts, refers to a model in which artists arrive at finished products by perceiving, conceiving, expressing and reflecting. I already note the difference in stages from other inquiry models. I observe also the final stage; reflection, which is key to most inquiries.  The metaphor as a tool for visual thinking is a prominent theme though the article, which has similar connotations to the prior learning phase of inquiry. The surrealist concept of synetics ,symbols and metaphors are powerful tools for creating concepts and ideas for the creation of a surrealistic work. The message of the article can be summed up as ” when students are given the tools to find alternative ways to arrive at an artwork, adequate time and resources those students were able to explore potential solutions to problems through the visual Inquiry cycle. I am not particularly  surprised by this revelation.

Hickman, Richard and Ali Eglinton, Kristen.(2009) Exploring the ways in which youth engage with visual material culture in their everyday lives: A framework for inquiry [online]. Australian Art Education, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2009: 4-16. Availability: <;dn=524308473658376;res=IELHSS> ISSN: 1032-1942. [cited 14 August 13].

Hickman and Eglington propose in this theoretical document, that much research and practice positions youth as passive rather than active producers of culture. This paper is concerned with providing a framework for exploring young people’s engagement with Visual Material Culture (VMC). In order to investigate and either validate or reject this argument the authors use an ethnographic approach to frame their inquiry. The article suggests there is too much emphasis  on critiquing VMC itself rather than on the individual youth aspects components that contributive. Places they live in and through and their own cultural practice. This resource is well off base from what I was looking for. The words in the title and the abstract had lead me to think the article was more to do with  youth using an inquiry frame work to investigate Visual Material Culture.

Lau, Chung-Yim and Lai, Ming-Hoi .(2011) Understanding problem-solving patterns in a problem-based art learning environment in the Hong Kong three-band secondary school context [online]. Australian Art Education, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2011: 56-78. Availability: <;dn=771418938018963;res=IELHSS> ISSN: 1032-1942. [cited 14 Aug 13].

In this paper, Lau and Lai discuss the advantages of problem based learning (PBL) as implemented in a three tiered secondary system in Hong Kong, where various inquiry models are widely accepted in visual arts and design education. PBL however, they propose, remains a model not often used and therefore worth investigating in this environment. The article discusses the meta-cognitive process involved in problem solving, and suggests that across the three bands of education there are differing attitudes towards learning that could be addressed by the model. The paper draws upon other scholarly opinion and data. This article is of great interest to me particularly given that my own students fall into their lower band category. The authors’ focus on the benefits of PBL with lower achievers is very relevant to my own context. Self confidence, motivation and increasing inquiry skills in lower achievers is addressed. This is a very worthwhile study for my own professional development.

Marshall, J. (2006). Substantive art integration = exemplary art education. Art Education, 59(6), 17-24. Retrieved from

 Marshall proposes an art education that is built on a model which she calls ‘Substantive Art Integration’ this she states, is connected to the concepts and ideas behind art and art practice. In this journal article she provides a summary of the foundations of this approach, an explanation of its principles and uses a sample practical contemporary art project to demonstrate this theory in practice. Contemporary post modern art is evidenced as promoting an art education is rich in learning opportunities, and thus is necessary for curriculum integration. Marshall discusses constructivism and its origins through Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky and others. Art lessons require that students translate information into visual images or take it further into imaginative applications. Art as Research ( Art Education Theory), Art principles and structures; and the integration of substantive art practices are topics that are covered. The steps outlined by Marshall can be translated into application in conceiving practical works as opposed to research based inquiry. The article is American and aimed at an elementary class.

Milbrandt, M. K., Felts, J., Richards, B., & Abghari, N. (2004). Teaching-to-learn: A constructivist approach to shared responsibility. Art Education, 57(5), 19-24,33. Retrieved from

Milbrandt et al propose that self-determination or choice is a powerful motivation in learning that enhances achievements and attitudes about learning. This paper discusses the effectiveness of a constructivist approach in the personal development of students. I concur with the authors that with the current emphasis on educational accountability, teachers sometimes find it increasingly difficult to step out of their roles as educational gatekeepers and allow student s a greater sense of agency and voice in their own learning . The article promotes a constructivist approach, by providing history and theory of the concept. The experiences of three Atlanta teachers in employing a constructivist approach are reported.

Scholes, Laura; Nagel, Michael (2010). “Engaging boys in literacy through the creative arts in a multi-age classroom.”. Journal of multi-age education , 4 (1), p. 3.

This paper investigates the use of creative arts to engage boys with literature. Scholes and Nagel suggest that involvement in creative arts carries benefits that affect the development of social, emotional and cognitive behaviours in boys. Whilst the article features music as the vehicle for learning, I still see the connection between their discussion of inquiry based learning strategies and those that I might employ in a visual arts capacity. In particular, the production of a group piece requires collaboration between the students in determining the processes and outcomes that would be undertaken leading to the final piece. The eventuating musical ‘How does your garden grow?’, was multi-disciplinary and catered to English, Visual arts, Music, Dance and Drama.  The outcomes of the production ,highlighted the involvement of the boys in ‘real-world’ purposes and processes which reflect the essence of the inquiry process. I found this article be helpful in providing a general glimpse of the inquiry process at work in the arts.

Wongse-Sanit, N (1997). “Inquiry-Based Teaching Using the World Wide Web.”. Art education (Reston) , 50 (2), p. 19.

The article combines Inquiry based learning and the world wide web as used in an art class . At the beginning of the document, Wongse-Sanit provides a comprehensive list of the art based websites that she refers to through the text, and suggests how teachers may use them as resources with their classes. A description of the world wide web is provided and a brief history  of its rapid development into the 21st century. Many of the features of the web such as hyperlinks, graphics, drawings and other resources are also explained. The age of this resource explains Wongse-Sanit’s explanation of concepts that we may now take for granted as known, but for many this revisiting  of features is comforting and reminds me that we haven’t progressed so far that the web is unattainable to educators of age. Object based learning can also be a by-product of the web inquiry process. The Getty’s Ed-print series is discussed with ideas for application in a lesson context, as is the ability to form a ‘slide like presentation’ using images from the web. verdict: a little outdated, but still worthwhile for the great art websites mentioned.


One thought on “Annotated Bibliography

  1. I had light bulbs going off in my head as I read through your bibliography, Rob. Up until now, I hadn’t even considered inquiry based learning in the subject area of art. I certainly know from my own teaching experience, that art is one of those subjects that is not seen as important, due to time constraints of a busy curriculum. Disappointing, I know! I only had to read your very first source written by Booth, to yet again be confronted with the notion that inquiry learning is applicable to all learning areas. It seems as though this article helps to dispel the myth that subjects such as art are stand-alone subjects. I found myself being challenged time and time again as I explored inquiry based learning and my own approach to teaching. I particularly connected with the first of Booth’s essential elements. I have students in my own classroom who lack motivation to learn. I recognise that their motivation needs to come from within by having a connection between their learning and lives and by giving them opportunities to consider what they care about.
    Another source that challenged me was that of Milbrandt, Felts, Richards, & Abghari and their reference to the difficulties that teachers face in allowing their students a ‘sense of agency and voice in their own learning’. Just the other day in my own classroom my students were working in small groups. As I wandered around the classroom checking in on each group, I was very tempted to interrupt and guide them in different directions. As I sit and reflect I realise it was due to time constraints and wanting them to come to a particular realisation quickly and to be honest, perhaps feeling a slight sense of fear that they may go down a track that I was not prepared for.
    I was wondering if you came across any readings where the role of the TL mentioned. I would be interested to read how their role can assist teachers when leading students through inquiry learning with art. Hopefully, I will be met with that challenge some day when I am a TL! It would be a pleasure to be part of what Hathaway refers to as a “studio” space where students are “artists in residence”. Sounds wonderful!

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